fcm-django

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Django app for Firebase Cloud Messaging. Used as an unified platform for sending push notifications to mobile devices & browsers (android / ios / chrome / firefox / …).

Supports Firebase Cloud Messaging HTTP v1 API. If you’re looking for the legacy API, use fcm-django<1!

FCMDevice model fields
  • registration_id (required - is FCM token)
  • name (optional)
  • active (default: true)
  • user (optional)
  • device_id (optional - can be used to uniquely identify devices)
  • type (‘android’, ‘web’, ‘ios’)
Functionality:
  • all necessary migrations
  • model admins for django admin
  • admin actions for testing single and bulk notification sending
  • automatic device pruning: devices to which notifications fail to send are marked as inactive
  • devices marked as inactive will not be sent notifications
  • Django rest framework viewsets

Demo javascript client project

Unsure how to use this project? Check out the demo at: https://github.com/xtrinch/fcm-django-web-demo

Migration to v1.0

We’ve replaced Python package pyfcm for Firebase’s own package firebase-admin. Thus, we no longer use an API key. Instead, you’ll need an environment variable GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS which is a path pointing to your JSON-file stored credentials. To learn more or view other options to input credentials, visit the Google Cloud docs.

Finally, in your settings.py (or whatever imported file), add:

from firebase_admin import initialize_app
FIREBASE_APP = initialize_app()
# Or just
initialize_app()

The API for sending messages is now under the firebase-admin package; hence, we removed the methods send_data_message from the QuerySet and class instance methods. Instead, everything is under a single method: send_message

from firebase_admin.messaging import Message, Notification
FCMDevice.objects.send_message(Message(data=dict()))
# Note: You can also combine the data and notification kwarg
FCMDevice.objects.send_message(
    Message(notification=Notification(title="title", body="body", image="image_url"))
)
device = FCMDevice.objects.first()
device.send_message(Message(...))

Additionally, we’ve added Firebase’s new Topic API, allowing for easier sending of bulk messages.

from firebase_admin.messaging import Message, Notification
topic = "A topic"
FCMDevice.objects.handle_subscription(True, topic)
message = Message(..., topic=topic)
FCMDevice.objects.filter(is_cool=True).send_message(message)

There are two additional parameters to both methods: skip_registration_id_lookup and additional_registration_ids. Visit Sending Messages to learn more.

Note: registration_ids is actually incorrect terminology as it should actually be called registration tokens. However, to be consistent with django-push-notifications, we’ve refrained from switching to stay backwards compatible in the docs and with the sister package.

Setup

You can install the library directly from pypi using pip:

Edit your settings.py file:

from firebase_admin import initialize_app

INSTALLED_APPS = (
    ...
    "fcm_django"
    ...
)

# Optional ONLY IF you have initialized a firebase app already:
# Visit https://firebase.google.com/docs/admin/setup/#python
# for more options for the following:
# Store an environment variable called GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS
# which is a path that point to a json file with your credentials.
# Additional arguments are available: credentials, options, name
FIREBASE_APP = initialize_app()
# To learn more, visit the docs here:
# https://cloud.google.com/docs/authentication/getting-started>

FCM_DJANGO_SETTINGS = {
     # an instance of firebase_admin.App to be used as default for all fcm-django requests
     # default: None (the default Firebase app)
    "DEFAULT_FIREBASE_APP": None,
     # default: _('FCM Django')
    "APP_VERBOSE_NAME": "[string for AppConfig's verbose_name]",
     # true if you want to have only one active device per registered user at a time
     # default: False
    "ONE_DEVICE_PER_USER": True/False,
     # devices to which notifications cannot be sent,
     # are deleted upon receiving error response from FCM
     # default: False
    "DELETE_INACTIVE_DEVICES": True/False,
    # Transform create of an existing Device (based on registration id) into
                # an update. See the section
    # "Update of device with duplicate registration ID" for more details.
    # default: False
    "UPDATE_ON_DUPLICATE_REG_ID": True/False,
}

Native Django migrations are in use. manage.py migrate will install and migrate all models.

Messages

You can read more about different types of messages here.

In short, there are two types: notifications and data messages.

Notification:

from firebase_admin.messaging import Message, Notification
Message(
    notification=Notification(title="title", body="text", image="url"),
    topic="Optional topic parameter: Whatever you want",
)

Data message:

from firebase_admin.messaging import Message
Message(
    data={
        "Nick" : "Mario",
        "body" : "great match!",
        "Room" : "PortugalVSDenmark"
   },
   topic="Optional topic parameter: Whatever you want",
)

As in the following example, you can send either a notification, a data message, or both. You can also customize the Android, iOS, and Web configuration along with additional FCM conditions. Visit firebase_admin.messaging.Message to learn more about those configurations.

Sending messages

Additional parameters are additional_registration_ids and skip_registration_id_lookup. View the “Additional Parameters” section for more information.

from firebase_admin.messaging import Message
from fcm_django.models import FCMDevice

# You can still use .filter() or any methods that return QuerySet (from the chain)
device = FCMDevice.objects.all().first()
# send_message parameters include: message, dry_run, app
device.send_message(Message(data={...}))

Sending messages in bulk

from firebase_admin.messaging import Message
from fcm_django.models import FCMDevice

# You can still use .filter() or any methods that return QuerySet (from the chain)
devices = FCMDevice.objects.all()
devices.send_message(Message(data={...}))
# Or (send_message parameters include: messages, dry_run, app)
FCMDevice.objects.send_message(Message(...))

Subscribing or Unsubscribing Users to topic

from fcm_django.models import FCMDevice

# Subscribing
FCMDevice.objects.all().handle_topic_subscription(True, topic="TOPIC NAME"))
device = FCMDevice.objects.all().first()
device.handle_topic_subscription(True, topic="TOPIC NAME"))

# Finally you can send a message to that topic
from firebase_admin.messaging import Message
message = Message(..., topic="A topic")
# You can still use .filter() or any methods that return QuerySet (from the chain)
FCMDevice.objects.send_message(message)

# Unsubscribing
FCMDevice.objects.all().handle_topic_subscription(False, topic="TOPIC NAME"))
device = FCMDevice.objects.all().first()
device.handle_topic_subscription(False, topic="TOPIC NAME"))

Sending messages to topic

from fcm_django.models import FCMDevice

FCMDevice.send_topic_message(Message(data={...}), "TOPIC NAME")

Additional Parameters

You can add additional_registration_ids (Sequence) for manually sending registration IDs. It will append these IDs to the queryset lookup’s returned registration IDs.

You can also add skip_registration_id_lookup (bool) to skip database lookup that goes along with your query.

from firebase_admin.messaging import Message
from fcm_django.models import FCMDevice
FCMDevice.objects.send_message(Message(...), False, ["registration_ids"])

Using multiple FCM apps

By default the message will be sent using the default FCM firebase_admin.App (we initialized this in our settings), or the one specified with the DEFAULT_FIREBASE_APP setting.

This default can be overridden by specifying an app when calling send_message. This can be used to send messages using different firebase projects.

from firebase_app import App
from firebase_app.messaging import Notification
from fcm_django.models import FCMDevice

device = FCMDevice.objects.all().first()
device.send_message(notification=Notification(...), app=App(...))

Setting a default Firebase app for FCM

If you want to use a specific Firebase app for all fcm-django requests, you can create an instance of firebase_admin.App and pass it to fcm-django with the DEFAULT_FIREBASE_APP setting.

The DEFAULT_FIREBASE_APP will be used for all send / subscribe / unsubscribe requests, include FCMDevice’s admin actions.

In your settings.py:

from firebase_admin import initialize_app, credentials
from google.auth import load_credentials_from_file
from google.oauth2.service_account import Credentials

# create a custom Credentials class to load a non-default google service account JSON
class CustomFirebaseCredentials(credentials.ApplicationDefault):
    def __init__(self, account_file_path: str):
        super().__init__()
        self._account_file_path = account_file_path

    def _load_credential(self):
        if not self._g_credential:
            self._g_credential, self._project_id = load_credentials_from_file(self._account_file_path,
                                                                              scopes=credentials._scopes)

# init default firebase app
# this loads the default google service account with GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS env variable
FIREBASE_APP = initialize_app()

# init second firebase app for fcm-django
# the environment variable contains a path to the custom google service account JSON
custom_credentials = CustomFirebaseCredentials(os.getenv('CUSTOM_GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS'))
FIREBASE_MESSAGING_APP = initialize_app(custom_credentials, name='messaging')

FCM_DJANGO_SETTINGS = {
    "DEFAULT_FIREBASE_APP": FIREBASE_MESSAGING_APP,
    # [...] your other settings
}

Django REST Framework (DRF) support

Viewsets come in two different varieties:

  • FCMDeviceViewSet

    • Permissions as specified in settings (AllowAny by default, which is not recommended)
    • A device may be registered without associating it with a user
    • Will not allow duplicate registration_id’s
  • FCMDeviceAuthorizedViewSet

    • Permissions are IsAuthenticated and custom permission IsOwner, which will only allow the request.user to get and update devices that belong to that user
    • Requires a user to be authenticated, so all devices will be associated with a user
    • Will allow duplicate registration_id’s for different users, so you are responsible for cleanup (if you do not want duplicate registration id’s, use the UPDATE_ON_DUPLICATE_REG_ID flag)

Routes can be added one of two ways:

from fcm_django.api.rest_framework import FCMDeviceAuthorizedViewSet

from rest_framework.routers import DefaultRouter

router = DefaultRouter()

router.register('devices', FCMDeviceAuthorizedViewSet)

urlpatterns = [
    # URLs will show up at <api_root>/devices
    # DRF browsable API which lists all available endpoints
    path('', include(router.urls)),
    # ...
]
  • Using as_view (specify which views to include)
from fcm_django.api.rest_framework import FCMDeviceAuthorizedViewSet

urlpatterns = [
    # Only allow creation of devices by authenticated users
    path('devices', FCMDeviceAuthorizedViewSet.as_view({'post': 'create'}), name='create_fcm_device'),
    # ...
]

Update of device with duplicate registration ID

The DRF viewset enforce the uniqueness of the registration ID. In some use case it may cause an issue: If an already registered mobile device changes its user, then it will fail to register because the registration ID already exist.

When option UPDATE_ON_DUPLICATE_REG_ID is set to True, then any creation of device with an already existing registration ID will be transformed into an update.

The UPDATE_ON_DUPLICATE_REG_ID only works with DRF.

Python 3 support

fcm-django is fully compatible with Python 3.6+

Django version compatibility

Compatible with Django versions 3.0+. For Django version 2.2, use version fcm-django < 2. For lower django versions, use version fcm-django < 1.

Acknowledgements

Library relies on firebase-admin-sdk for sending notifications, for more info about all the possible fields, see: https://github.com/firebase/firebase-admin-python

Migration from v0 to v1 was done by Andrew-Chen-Wang

Need help, have any questions, suggestions?

Submit an issue/PR on this project. Please do not send me emails, as then the community has no chance to see your questions / provide answers.

Contributing

To setup the development environment, simply do pip install -r requirements.txt To manually run the pre-commit hook, run pre-commit run –all-files.